GDM during pregnancy

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Gestational diabetes mellitus or GDM during pregnancy

Gestational diabetes mellitus or GDM during pregnancy

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a type of glucose intolerance that begins during pregnancy caused by hormones which are produced by the placenta (block the effect of insulin) and is usually during irreversible postpartum. During pregnancy the placenta continues to grow; produce more hormones and further increases insulin resistance, resulting rise in blood glucose levels. Gestational diabetes can develop in overweight (hyperinsulinemic), insulin-resistant women or in thin, comparatively insulin-deficient women. This increases foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Neonates are prone to respiratory distress, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperviscosity.


  • Calcium and Vitamin D supplements may improve metabolic profile of women with GDM.
  • Healthy Diet – Avoid single large meals with a large percentage of simple carbohydrates. The diet should comprise of foods with complex carbohydrates and cellulose, example whole grain and legumes.
  • Insulin – In gestational diabetes, early intervention with insulin or an oral agent is the key to achieving a good outcome when diet fails to provide adequate glycemic control.
  • Neonate management – Current recommendations for infants of diabetic mothers — of frequent blood glucose checks and early oral feeding (ideally from the breast) when possible, with infusion of intravenous glucose if oral measures prove insufficient.

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